Développement web indépendant à Montpellier

Publié le vendredi 06 mars 2009 16:53:02

Flash et l'accessibilité (Partie I)

La question revient régulièrement aux lèvres de nombreuses personnes : est il possible de faire du flash accessible ? Sans être Normand, je resterai extrêmement mitigé sur le sujet.
Je vais essayer ici d'exposer mes doutes quant à l'utilisation de Flash dans le cadre d'un site accessible.

Mise au point : Je ne fais ni du prosélytisme pour Flash, ni pour l'accessibilité : j'essaie, bien qu'étant valide, de me placer du point de vue d'une personne ayant besoin d'un dispositif particulier pour avoir accès aux informations.

Etat des lieux

Il existe des sites internet, notamment de grands groupes Français accessibles et labellisés utilisant la technologie d'Adobe. Cela reste néanmoins dans la plupart des cas de simples animations graphiques, n'ayant pour intérêt que leur esthétisme (qui n'est certainement pas le seul intérêt de Flash). C'est de cette manière que les professionnels du web ont tendance à contourner le problème en soulignant l'impossibilité de faire du Flash accessible.

Le fait est que la mise en place d'un site internet accessible dont le contenu serait en Flash pose forcément problème : impossible d'avoir accès au contenu flash sans navigateur graphique, ce qui impose d'ores et déjà d'avoir une alternative textuelle.

Si le problème se limitait à fournir une alternative textuelle, ce serait beaucoup plus simple : à chaque flash son alternative, et c'est tout.
Il existe en réalité de nombreuses problématiques lié à l'utilisation de Flash lorsque l'on souhaite un site accessible :

J'aborderai dans cette article la méthode pour rendre le contenu d'une application Flash accessible aux lecteurs d'écrans.

Le contenu du Flash

S'il est une chose que l'on ne peut reprocher à Adobe (et Macromedia qui avait commencé le travail), c'est qu'ils ont fait de gros efforts pour rendre Flash lisible par les lecteurs d'écrans. N'en déplaise aux détracteurs habituels de Flash, c'est une réalité.

Après plusieurs essais sur JAWS , on constate que l'on peut effectivement lire le contenu des applications Flash (ce qui est de bonne augure pour les Widgets AIR, à base de Flash).

La possibilité de rendre son contenu ne se limite pas aux seuls développeurs; il existe plusieurs dispositifs pour activer cette possibilité :

  • directement dans Actionscript, depuis Actionscript 2,
  • dans l'interface graphique de Flash, en affichant le panneau "accessibilité" de Flash.

Que l'on soit développeur ou graphiste, on peut très facilement rendre ses animations lisibles par les lecteurs d'écrans.

Méthode d'insertion pour les développeurs

Pour Actionscript 3 : Imaginons que l'on souhaite attribuer des Propriétés d'accessibilité au MovieClip oItem.

// clip sur lequel on souhaite rendre du contenu disponible aux lecteurs d'écran  
var oItem = new MovieClip();  

// On cré une instance de type AccessibilityProperties  
var oAccessProperty:AccessibilityProperties = new AccessibilityProperties(); 

// Les renseignements pour les lecteurs d'écran   
oAccessProperty.name = "Je suis un clip";  
oAccessProperty.description = "Salut tout le monde !";  
oItem.accessibilityProperties = oAccessProperty;

Et c'est tout ! Au focus de ce clip, un lecteur d'écran sortira en synthèse vocale un "Je suis un clip Salut tout le monde". Cela fonctionne très bien. Les seules imperfections notables sont qu'il est impossible de spécifier une langue pour que la synthèse vocale s'adapte.

Méthode d'insertion pour les graphistes

Il existe un dispositif fenêtré pour rendre un clip accessible : Il faut tout d'abord ouvrir le panneau d'accessibilité de Flash :

Fenêtre > autres panneaux > accessibilité (ou maj + F11)

On cré ensuite notre MovieClip qui contient le texte "Salut tout le monde !".

Puis pour rendre ce texte accessible en synthèse vocale : cibler le Movieclip en question, et ajouter sa description dans le panneau d'accessibilité, comme ci-dessous :

Ajout d'une description à un Movieclip Flash

C'est tout ! Je vous avoue que la sortie en synthèse vocale du nom est un peu inutile, n'entrer qu'une description est largement suffisant : vos conventions de nommage de boutons n'intéressent en général que très peu vos visiteurs :)

Conclusion

Voilà donc un premier pas vers l'accessibilité pour la technologie Flash; cependant, permettre aux lecteurs d'écrans de lire vos animations Flash ne rendra pas pour autant votre page Web accessible !

Dans de futurs articles nous aborderons les problématiques liées aux différentes plates-formes, et les différentes .méthodes d'insertions dans les pages HTML

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