Développement web indépendant à Montpellier

Publié le jeudi 11 juin 2009 14:28:19

HTML 5

5, est la prochaine version majeure du principal langage d'internet : HTML. Il spécifie 2 variantes du même langage : le HTML "classique" (text/html) communément appellé HTML5 et communément appellé xHTML5. C'est par ailleurs la première fois qu'HTML et xHTML sont développés en parallèle.

Nouvelles balises

HTML5 propose de nouvelles balises qui reflètent l'usage des sites internet actuels. Beaucoup de ces nouvelles balises ont été ajouté pour combler les vides sémantiques d'HTML4 : les cas où l'on avait tendance à utiliser les balises communes de mise en forme <div> ou <span>.

A noter également la suppression de certaines balises dépréciées, notamment <font> et <center>, dont l'usage est devenu inutile grâce à la généralisation des .

La syntaxe HTML n'est plus basée sur , en dépit de la ressemblance des balises. HTML5 a été conçu de toutes façons pour être retro-compatible avec les anciens navigateurs, en ajoutant une nouvelle ligne introduisant le document (et ressemblant à une déclaration SGML) :

<!DOCTYPE html>

Nouvelles APIS

En plus du du balisage spécifique, HTML 5 propose une API visant, je l'espère, à homogéïser la programmation. Les interfaces DOM (Document Object Model) sont étendues et documentées. IL existe de nouvelles API comme :

  • Canvas : pour réaliser du dessin en 2D
  • Lecteur média
  • Base de donnée hors-ligne
  • Edition du document
  • Drag and drop
  • Gestion de l'historique
  • Gestion du type-mime

Différences notables avec HTML4

Quelques différences avec HTML4 :

  • Les nouvelles balises : section, article, footer, audio, video, progress, nav, meter, time, aside, canvas, datagrid
  • nouveau type d'objets de formulaire pour en faciliter le contrôle : url, email, search
  • nouveaux attributs de balise : on sur A et AREA, charset sur META, async sur SCRIPT (yes !!)
  • de nouveaux attributs utilisables partout : id, tabindex, hidden

Je n'ai pas poussé très loin les recherches, mais l'arrivée de l'attribut async sur la balise <script> me paraît être une excellente nouvelle, surtout dans le cadre du chargement d'une page !

Pour en savoir plus sur les nouveautés, Wikipedia fait l'inventaire de l'ensemble des nouvelles balises et attributs.

Gestion des erreurs

HTML 5 fera preuve de souplesse dans l'interprétation de la syntaxe, contrairement à xHTML5 qui sera plus contraignant à ce niveau.

HTML5 est conçu pour être compatible avec les anciens navigateurs HTML4; ce sera sans doute dans un premier temps le choix pour permettre aux clients d'évoluer petit à petit vers de nouveaux navigateurs. (Reste à savoir quand il sera possible de développer un site xHTML5, certainement pas avant un moment !)

On attend donc avec impatience de tester les nouvelles APIs !

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